M³ and Beyond!

In the previous entry, we introduced the M² tests, which we squared the vote counts and then compare their distribution to the Benford distribution in order to detect electoral fraud, while the Benford test uses the original (not squared) vote counts and had some issues of committing the Type I error.…

Introducing the M² Tests

One of the purposes of the Center is to extend current statistical tests and apply them to elections. One test that is frequently used is the Benford Test. However, it has been shown using simulation studies to fall short as an appropriate test (Deckert et al. 2011; Forsberg 2014). However,…