Once again, Erdoğan seeks to alter the political structure of the Republic of Turkey. When he became the Prime Minister in 2003, the Turkish state reflected the long Turkish history of seeking Europe. Atatürk created a Western state out of the remains of the Ottoman Empire. The new Republic of Turkey combined France's parliamentary system and anti-clericalism. Since then, Erdoğan has consistently moved Turkey from a French system towards a US system.
The 2017 constitutional referendum marked the latest step. How did it go, and what can we learn about Turkey?
The Republic of the Sudan is a one-party dominant State. According to the constitution, the Sudanese Presidency has a five-year term, with no restrictions on re-elections. President Omar al-Bashir became the seventh president of Sudan in 1989. Today, he stands for his fourth election.
What are his chances of winning?
Egypt's trek from Mubarek's overthrow to a stable nation has been long and arduous. The celebrations in Tahrir Square seem far too distant. The jubilation of the prospect of a genuine democracy seems a dream from last night. In the days since the protests against President Hosni Mubarek began, Egyptians have experienced at least two coups d'état, three constitutional referenda, and two presidential elections.
Is Sisi's election what Egypt needs?
That the Arab Spring brought many changes to Libya is an understatement. The February 2011 revolution starting in Benghazi overthrew Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, who had led Libya since 1969, and replaced him with the National Transitional Council. That transitional body was replaced with the General National Congress, whose job was to govern Libya until the Constitutional Assembly passed a new constitution.
It is now 2014, and Libya still does not have that permanent constitution. Where did it go wrong?
This is the second in a series of articles on the 2014 Egyptian Constitutional referendum. In the previous post (article: Egypt’s Referendum 2014), I examined the curious relationship between the invalidation rate and the support for the referendum. This implies unfairness in the election, not necessarily fraud. It could simply be that the electoral system is unfair to a certain segment of the population—a segment that overwhelmingly opposed the referendum.
So, is it a result of the electoral system?