Center for Electoral Forensics

M³ and Beyond!

In the previous entry, we introduced the M² tests, which we squared the vote counts and then compare their distribution to the Benford distribution in order to detect electoral fraud, while the Benford test uses the original (not squared) vote counts and had some issues of committing the Type I error.…

Introducing the M² Tests

One of the purposes of the Center is to extend current statistical tests and apply them to elections. One test that is frequently used is the Benford Test. However, it has been shown using simulation studies to fall short as an appropriate test (Deckert et al. 2011; Forsberg 2014). However,…

Swedish General Election 2014

The Swedish general election was held on September 14, 2014, to elect the Riksdag, all 21 county councils, and 290 municipal assemblies. The centre-right Alliance for Sweden coalition (comprising the Moderate Party, Liberal People's Party, Centre Party, and Christian Democrats) sought a third term in government. In contrast to the…

Taiwan Presidential Election on 2016

Taiwan is located off the southeastern coast of China, between Japan and the Philippines. With Japan to the north, China to the west, and the Philippines to the south, Taiwan has always been a location of strategic maritime importance since ancient times. It has played an important role in the…

New Zealand 2014

New Zealand is an island country located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. It is a constitutional monarchy with the Queen of England and the House of Representatives comprising the Parliament. Unlike other countries, the parliamentary election rules are is a little different…