The Islamic Republic of the Gambia came into being in 1965, after winning independence from the United Kingdom. In the intervening half-century, the Gambia has flirted with democracy, a union with Senegal, and military government. The current president, Yahya Jammeh, came to power in 1994 as a result of a military coup. In December 2016, the Gambia held its fourth presidential election since then.
How did Jammeh do against his rival, Barrow?
Egypt's trek from Mubarek's overthrow to a stable nation has been long and arduous. The celebrations in Tahrir Square seem far too distant. The jubilation of the prospect of a genuine democracy seems a dream from last night. In the days since the protests against President Hosni Mubarek began, Egyptians have experienced at least two coups d'état, three constitutional referenda, and two presidential elections.
Is Sisi's election what Egypt needs?
The Arab Spring continues to wreak havoc on Syria. Since the beginning of the Syrian civil war in 2011, there have been more than 100,000 deaths. And yet, even in the midst of the war, Syria holds to its democratic processes. Syria held parliamentary elections in 2012, and is currently holding presidential elections.
What are the effects of the war on the elections?
That the Arab Spring brought many changes to Libya is an understatement. The February 2011 revolution starting in Benghazi overthrew Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, who had led Libya since 1969, and replaced him with the National Transitional Council. That transitional body was replaced with the General National Congress, whose job was to govern Libya until the Constitutional Assembly passed a new constitution.
It is now 2014, and Libya still does not have that permanent constitution. Where did it go wrong?
This is the second in a series of articles on the 2014 Egyptian Constitutional referendum. In the previous post (article: Egypt’s Referendum 2014), I examined the curious relationship between the invalidation rate and the support for the referendum. This implies unfairness in the election, not necessarily fraud. It could simply be that the electoral system is unfair to a certain segment of the population—a segment that overwhelmingly opposed the referendum.
So, is it a result of the electoral system?