Once again, Erdoğan seeks to alter the political structure of the Republic of Turkey. When he became the Prime Minister in 2003, the Turkish state reflected the long Turkish history of seeking Europe. Atatürk created a Western state out of the remains of the Ottoman Empire. The new Republic of Turkey combined France's parliamentary system and anti-clericalism. Since then, Erdoğan has consistently moved Turkey from a French system towards a US system.
The 2017 constitutional referendum marked the latest step. How did it go, and what can we learn about Turkey?
The Islamic Republic of the Gambia came into being in 1965, after winning independence from the United Kingdom. In the intervening half-century, the Gambia has flirted with democracy, a union with Senegal, and military government. The current president, Yahya Jammeh, came to power in 1994 as a result of a military coup. In December 2016, the Gambia held its fourth presidential election since then.
How did Jammeh do against his rival, Barrow?
The Republic of Burundi is a landlocked country in eastern Africa surrounded by Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda. It suffered its own genocide in 1972, where 100,000 Hutu and 10,000 Tutsi were killed. Current president, Pierre Nkurunziza, is the son of a Tutsi mother and Hutu father.
Has this son of all Burundi brought the country together?
The Republic of Haiti has experienced much instability and poverty throughout its 211 years of independence. From multiple coups to unstable empires to invasions to corrupt presidents for life, Haiti has had little opportunity for economic and political growth. The 2010 presidential election looked to be a turning point for Haiti. Polls were held. The popular Michel Martelly was elected. Hope prevailed.
Yet, how fair were the 2010 elections?
Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world. It is primarily located between India and Afghanistan, although it shares a desert border with Iran and a mountainous border with China. As a former British colony, one would expect its government style to be based on the Westminster model. However, Pakistan is a federal parliamentary republic with a president.
The ruling party won 18 of the 48 seats in the Senate in Friday's election. What does this mean for Pakistan?