Once again, Erdoğan seeks to alter the political structure of the Republic of Turkey. When he became the Prime Minister in 2003, the Turkish state reflected the long Turkish history of seeking Europe. Atatürk created a Western state out of the remains of the Ottoman Empire. The new Republic of Turkey combined France's parliamentary system and anti-clericalism. Since then, Erdoğan has consistently moved Turkey from a French system towards a US system.
The 2017 constitutional referendum marked the latest step. How did it go, and what can we learn about Turkey?
Egypt's trek from Mubarek's overthrow to a stable nation has been long and arduous. The celebrations in Tahrir Square seem far too distant. The jubilation of the prospect of a genuine democracy seems a dream from last night. In the days since the protests against President Hosni Mubarek began, Egyptians have experienced at least two coups d'état, three constitutional referenda, and two presidential elections.
Is Sisi's election what Egypt needs?
This is the second in a series of articles on the 2014 Egyptian Constitutional referendum. In the previous post (article: Egypt’s Referendum 2014), I examined the curious relationship between the invalidation rate and the support for the referendum. This implies unfairness in the election, not necessarily fraud. It could simply be that the electoral system is unfair to a certain segment of the population—a segment that overwhelmingly opposed the referendum.
So, is it a result of the electoral system?
The Arab Spring was not easy on Egypt, and still is not. Hosni Mubarak was removed in a coup. He was eventually replaced by the popularly-elected Mohammed Morsi (article: The Quality of Mursi). Morsi, who seemed to be a compromise candidate, was then removed in the 2013 military coup. On January 14 and 15, 2014, Egyptians again went to the polls, this time to amend the constitution (article: Elections Called in Egypt).
How did that turn out?
President Robert Mugabe has ruled Zimbabwe since its second independence in 1980. He is seeking a sixth term in the presidency later this year (article: Mugabe's Sixth). However, before that election takes place, both Mugabe and Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai want a referendum on the draft constitution. Today, they announced that this referendum will be held on March 16 — tentatively.
What is in the constitution?