Once again, Erdoğan seeks to alter the political structure of the Republic of Turkey. When he became the Prime Minister in 2003, the Turkish state reflected the long Turkish history of seeking Europe. Atatürk created a Western state out of the remains of the Ottoman Empire. The new Republic of Turkey combined France's parliamentary system and anti-clericalism. Since then, Erdoğan has consistently moved Turkey from a French system towards a US system.
The 2017 constitutional referendum marked the latest step. How did it go, and what can we learn about Turkey?
Once again, Italians headed to the polls to elect a parliament. The House of Representatives has 630 deputies are elected through party-list proportional representation from each of Italy's 20 regions. Since the founding of the Second Republic in 1994, old political parties vanished, to be replaced by politicians. Millionaire Silvio Berlusconi became Prime Minister based on the coalition he formed around himself. Since 1994, political parties tend to form and reform to reflect the dominant politicians available.
How did that work for Italy in this election?
The unicameral National Assembly of Bulgaria has 240 seats of which the center-right Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria party holds 117. This has held steady since the last parliamentary election in 2009. Another thing that has held steady is the unemployment rate in Bulgaria since the start of the global economic downturn.
How did this lead to the fall of the Borisov government?
Being the only elected absolute monarch in current existence, the Pope has no electoral concerns. Once elected, the Pope reigns until death or resignation. The last Pope to resign was Pope Gregory XII (Papa Gregorius Duodecimus), in 1415. Thus, the Papacy is seen as a lifetime appointment. Breaking with this tradition, Pope Benedict XVI announced his resignation today. Thus, the 265th Pope will step down at the end of this month and a new Pope will be elected in March.
How will the 266th Pope be elected?
Nestled between Switzerland and Austria, the Principality of Liechtenstein is a prosperous constitutional monarchy with no military and a GDP per capita of $141,000. During the global recession, Liechtenstein has kept that prosperity, even surpassing Monaco's GDP per capita in 2011.
Why, then, did the center-right ruling coalition lose a quarter of their seats in the Landtag?